Whenever there is cargo damage or there is any claim against a vessel. The vessels Master/Owner or Operator will contact a P & I Club to facilitate an damage survey and investigation. 

P & I Clubs provide international Marine insurance commonly known as protection and indemnity insurance, or "P & I insurance".

P&I Clubs are Associations of sorts formed by using funds collected from various ship owners. These funds are then put up as guarantees or are utilized whenever a member vessel runs into a problem in a port. Typically a P & I Club is a mutual insurance association that provides risk pooling, information and representation for its members.

P & I Clubs inspect their member vessels from time to time at random, to verify if the vessels are being maintained and operated in an efficient manner. Additionally P & I clubs may request for surveying and attendance on high value / high risk cargoes to ensure that sound risk management and hazard identification / mitigation occurs. 

AmSpec CR Cox and their affiliate company Australia Ship P & I, are active correspondents for major P & I Clubs. Among them but not limited to  and in no particular order of preference are: